India Map

India enjoys a strategic position in Asia as it overlooks the Arabian Sea and Africa to the west and Malaysia, Burma, and the Indonesian archipelago to the east. Geologically, the Himalayan Mountain Ranges separate the country from the remainder of the Asian continent. The name of the country was derived from the Indus Valley. Physically, India is as huge as it is diverse. It is the seventh biggest nation in the world.


India is situated towards the north of the equator amid 8°4' and 37°6' north latitude and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude. The country is bordered on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal and on the southwest by the Arabian Sea. The Himalayan Mountain Ranges border the country on the north, northeast and northwest sides. Kanyakumari creates the southernmost point of the Indian peninsula where it becomes thinner and thinner, and meets with the Indian Ocean.


From north to south, India spans 3,214 km and from east to west 2,933 km with an overall land zone of 3,287,263 sq km. The country has a land boundary of 15,200 km and a shoreline of 7516.5 km. Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea and Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal are its territories.


India shares its political frontiers with Afghanistan and Pakistan to the west and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The northern frontier comprises of the Sinkiang province of China, Nepal, Tibet, and Bhutan. India is segregated from Sri Lanka by a thin canal of sea created by the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait.

India Physical Map
India Physical Map

Physiographic Regions of India

The country can be divided into the following physiographic regions:
  • The Northern Mountains
  • Thar Desert
  • Indo-Gangetic plains
  • Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau
  • West Coast
  • East Coast
  • Adjoining seas and islands
Three major types of rocks are seen and they are sedimentary rocks (conglomerates), igneous rocks, and metamorphic rocks.

Climatic areas of India

India can be categorized into the following climatic areas:
  • Tropical rainy climate region
  • Tropical savannah region
  • Sub Tropical Steppe region
  • Humid Subtropical Region
  • Tropical Steppe Region
  • Mountainous region
  • Tropical desert region
There are three major seasons in the country: Summer, Monsoon, and Winter. The atmospheric layers comprise of troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere, mesosphere, and exosphere.

Drainage basins of India

The drainage areas or watersheds can be categorized into the following:
  • Drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers
  • Drainage basin of the rivers in Vindhya and Satpura Mountain Ranges
  • Catchment basin of the rivers in the Western Ghats Mountain Range

Tallest Peaks of India

Given below are the tallest peaks in the country with their altitudes:
S.No Name Elevation
1 Kanchenjungha 8,586 m
2 Nanda Devi, Uttarakhand 7,816 m
3 Kamet, Uttarakhand 7,756 m
4 Saser Kangri 7,672 m
5 Jongsong Peak 7,462 m
6 Kabru 7,412 m
7 Tent Peak 7,362 m
8 Badrinath, Uttarakhand 7,138 m
9 Nunkun, Kashmir 7,135 m
10 P'ao-han-li Shan 7,128 m
11 Trisul, Uttarakhand 7,120 m

Physical features of India: Fact File

Continent: Asia
Region: Indian subcontinent/Southern Asia
Coordinates: 21°N 78°E?
Area: Ranked 7th 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219.3 sq miles)
9.56 % water
90.44% land
Total land borders: 15,106.7 km (9,386.87 mi)
China (PRC): 3,488 km (2,167 miles)
Bangladesh: 4,096.7 km (2,545.57 miles)
Nepal: 1,751 km (1,088 miles)
Pakistan: 3,323 km (2,065 miles)
Bhutan: 699 km (434 miles)
Myanmar: 1,643 km (1,021 miles)
Afghanistan: 106 km (66 miles)
Lowest point: Kuttanad -2.2 m (-7.2 feet)
Highest point: Kangchenjunga 8,586 m (28,169.3 ft)
Longest river: Ganges-Brahmaputra
Biggest Lake: Chilka Lake

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